Joshua Abraham Norton called himself the Emperor of North America and the Protector of Mexico. He was an amiable and beloved eccentric who “reigned” in San Francisco, California from 1850 to 1880. Norton was thought to be an Englishman whose mind had broken under financial disaster. With his faithful dogs, Bummer and Lazarus, he patrolled the streets dressed in a gold-braided army uniform and a plumed hat, inspecting buildings and checking up on policemen. Newspapers published his “proclamations,” stores honored his paper money, the city gave him a pension, and 300,000 mourners attended his funeral.